Bottom-up Transnational Solidarity: A Typology

In her work on solidarity as a constitutional value, Tamar Hostovsky Brandes suggests that constitutional law can be a source of cultivating transnational solidarity from below, “bottom-up”, and that domestic constitutional endorsement of transnational solidarity can cultivate a commitment to solidarity rooted in the state’s own values and culture. This paper explores the category of “bottom up” transnational solidarity more broadly to suggest a typology of cases in which domestic courts and constitutions employ local values to express and shape commitments towards outsiders. Whether the commitments are expressed as reciprocal among states, between states and individuals, or among individuals, bottom-up constitutional expressions of transnational solidarity are characterized by various collective values, and driven among others by: cosmopolitan, regional, religious, socialist, de-colonial and neo-liberal commitments to outside groups and individuals.