Between continuity and change of constitutional and gender regimes in Poland: the case of illiberal constitutionalism.

This article describes the three stages of Polish constitutionalism – transitional, consolidated and illiberal – and the gender regime that dominates them. It argues that the post-1989 democratization process came at the expense of limiting women's reproductive rights while recognizing their rights within the family. This trend has intensified under illiberal constitutionalism (since 2015), especially in recent Constitutional Court decisions and official government policies that lead to a re-traditionalisation of gender roles despite the visible social change. The article argues that there is the invisible social contract between those in power and the Catholic Church that underlies power relations in Poland and proves insensitive to social change and mass protest.