Between Blaming and Naming: Constitutions and Transitional Justice in Post-Soviet States

The quarter-century of politics in twelve non-Baltic post-Soviet states shows the approaches of transitional justice from blaming to naming towards the abuses of human rights committed by Soviet and post-Soviet regimes. All post-Soviet regimes officially blame Stalinist regime in general while very few – Georgia and Ukraine – actually blame post-Stalinist regime, name concrete perpetrators of the abuses and collaborators and attempt lustration. Most post-Soviet states keep most of the secret police archives secret yet they permit rehabilitation, compensation and memorialization of victims of Stalin’s purges without naming concrete perpetrators of purges and officials in charge of expropriation – the pattern inherited from the last years of the USSR. Most of these states glorify the memory of the victims and encourage repatriation of ancestors of the victims, like in Kazakhstan, without announcing the names of officials and collaborators with secret police responsible for their fleeing.