‘Belief in One God’: Religious Constitutional Identity vs the Rights of Religious and Sexual Minorities in Indonesia

Indonesia is founded on the five fundamental principles of the state which are collectively called the Pancasila. The first principle enshrines ‘belief in One God’. This principle, however, has been construed in a way that is detrimental to the rights of religious and sexual minorities, international human rights law notwithstanding. The purpose of this presentation is to explore how the religious constitutional identity of Indonesia has been interpreted by the Indonesian Constitutional Court in a way that would conflict with international human rights jurisprudence on religious and sexual minorities. This panel will particularly focus on the Blasphemy case and the LGBT case in Indonesia.