A Case for Moderated Parliamentarism: Balancing Accountability and Effectiveness

Moderated parliamentarism entails a strong bicameral legislature in which the two chambers are symmetric (i.e. they have equal legislative powers) and incongruent (i.e. they are likely to have different partisan compositions). The centrist 'confidence and opposition' chamber is elected on a moderated majoritarian electoral system (such as approval vote or ranked-choice/preferential vote); the diversified 'checking and appointing' chamber is constituted on a proportional representation model (with a reasonably high threshold requirement). The traditional debates between presidentialism and parliamentarism, and between majoritarian and proportional electoral systems have endured for as long as they have because each system has something attractive. Moderated parliamentarism combines the most attractive elements of each to optimize competing values.