10 Years after Iceland: Recent Developments Digital Public Participation in Constitution Making

Constitutional reform sits prominently on governance agendas across the global north and south. Under pressure from citizens, states face unprecedented legitimacy crises that threaten longstanding political institutions. But constitution-making still remains one of the few processes dominated by political elites – a deep irony given that constitutions claim to represent ‘the people’s will.’ Policy makers and activists are working to change such constitutional conventions by harnessing the democratic and deliberative potential of digital technologies to redefine citizens' relationship to the state. This paper provides an overview of efforts over the last decade to deploy technological tools in bottom-up constitution making initiatives. Assessing the impacts of technology on these processes, it points to the potential of recent technological advances in contributing to democratic will formation, while also emphasising the limits of technological interventions on constitution making.