1. Violence against Women in Politics: The Belém do Pará and Istanbul Conventions

As the number of women in politics increases, so does the need to recognise and combat the violence and harassment that women encounter therein. Combating this violence, often normalised and tolerated, is imperative as it negatively affects women’s equal political rights and undermines democracy itself. So far, however, gender-based violence in politics has received little attention. International human rights law has started to address the issue only recently. This paper will assess the potential to combat violence against women in politics of two conventions dealing with gender-based violence: Belém do Pará and Istanbul. It will evaluate the standards developed by their monitoring bodies while analysing how this violence is conceptualised, the areas of political/public life where it is addressed and the challenges in tackling it. The political ambit where this violence occurs, where free speech is highly protected, makes addressing this violence particularly challenging.